In my last post, I explained that there are three kinds of Apologetics: presuppositional, classical, and evidential. My last post also gave an overview of presuppositional Apologetics. This second post will introduce the second of the three schools of Apologetics, classical Apologetics.
Michael Houdmann is the CEO of GotQuestions.org. He defines classical Apologetics this way: “Classical apologetics is a method of apologetics that begins by first employing various theistic arguments to establish the existence of God. Classical apologists will often utilize various forms of the cosmological, teleological (Design), ontological, and moral arguments to prove God’s existence. Once God’s existence has been established, the classical apologist will then move on to present evidence from fulfilled prophecy, the historical reliability of Scripture, and the bodily resurrection of Jesus to distinguish Christianity from all other competing forms of theism.”
Classical and evidential Apologetics are both very different from presuppositional Apologetics and very similar to each other. They both include the step of arguing that miracles and other such evidences demonstrate the existence of the Biblical God. However, as noted by Michael Houdmann above, classical Apologetics includes another step that comes first. That step is demonstrating the existence of a deity through various proofs.
Four common proofs used to establish the existence of a deity are these:
1. The Cosmological Argument (Uncaused Cause)
2. The Teleological Argument (Designed Universe)
3. The Ontological Argument (Greatest Conceivable Being)
4. The Moral Argument (Objective Morals)
After we overview evidential Apologetics in my next post, we’ll return to these proofs and examine them more in-depth.